The so called ISIS caliphate may have lost swaths of territory, but thousands of its surviving members and the broader jihadist movement continue to exist. The tensions and drivers that provided a breeding ground for ISIS and al-Qaeda to operate from within and beyond the Middle East are still present. Foreign influences, regional sectarian tensions, and economic instability help drive radicalization and instability. In what ways will the caliphate’s demise strengthen or weaken the overall jihadist network? What are the prospects for ISIS to resurge in the region given the inability to fully destroy its fighting force thus far? And how should America direct its foreign policy and military presence in the region?