June 2, 2017 | By Alexander Hitch

On German Cars, Trade Deficits, and the Relationship with the EU

REUTERS/Kai Pfaffenbach

After last week’s NATO and G7 meetings, President Trump trained his comments on the “massive” US trade deficit with Germany, which followed his earlier criticism of the “millions of cars” that Germany exports to the United States.

The problem is, of course, that neither of these gripes hold much water.

Firstly, the bilateral trade deficit is a macroeconomic consideration, not a signal of US economic weakness or unfair trade agreements, and also a matter not necessarily in Berlin’s control. As a member of the Eurozone, Germany cannot lower (or raise) the value of its currency individually, as the euro is managed by the European Central Bank in the interest of all 19 member countries. For its part, and to the potential detriment of its surplus, Germany is hoping to raise the value of the currency, but the struggling economies of southern Europe, such as Italy, Spain, and Greece, are loathe to the idea of a stronger euro.

Furthermore, as Paul Krugman recently suggested, bilateral deficits with countries in a customs union like the EU are harder to tease out, potentially because much of the US trade to the continent is registered originally in Rotterdam or Antwerp. This would mean that even if a good’s final destination is Germany, it instead becomes a US export to the Netherlands or Belgium.

Turning to the export of German-made cars, it is true that, based on value, the US imports about 3 ½ times as many vehicles, auto parts, and engines from Germany as it exports to Germany. But German auto companies also have manufacturing facilities in the United States, which produce roughly the same number of cars for export that are imported directly from Germany. BMW’s largest global factory is in Spartanburg, South Carolina, and the majority of the plant’s sales are international, counting as US exports. Similar operations exist for Mercedes-Benz in Alabama, and Volkswagen in Tennessee.

It is also important to view cars in the context of the globalized economy. With international supply chains, autos are never fully German, American, or Japanese. For example, to sell in the United States and avoid paying duty, an auto must be made of 62.5% North American – not US – parts, per NAFTA. And even if some components are sourced from Asia or Europe and augmented in Canada or Mexico, it would still count as a 100% US-made export, provided the car was finally assembled in the United States. Today's cars rely on parts sourced worldwide and assembled in various countries, and European auto supply chains are similarly diverse.

President Trump’s statements may just be political bluster to ensure his base that he is fulfilling campaign promises to get tough on trade. However, if the United States continues to harp on allies seemingly without the full context, the EU (and Germany with it) may lose patience and build stronger relations with other trading partners. Chancellor Merkel is wasting no time, already hosting Chinese and Indian representatives since last week’s summits.

This is much to risk over the German bilateral surplus and auto exports. As a relatively simple solution, toning down the rhetoric on deficits and giving credence to US-based German manufacturing would be a strong start.


Phil Levy is senior fellow on the global economy at The Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Previously he was associate professor of business administration at the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business. He was formerly a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and taught at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. From 2003 to 2006, he served first as senior economist for trade for President Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers and then as a member of Secretary of State Rice’s Policy Planning Staff, covering international economic matters. Before working in government, he was a faculty member of Yale University’s Department of Economics for nine years and spent one of those as academic director of Yale’s Center for the Study of Globalization.

His academic writings have appeared in such outlets as The American Economic ReviewEconomic Journal, and theJournal of International Economics. He is a regular contributor to Foreign Policy magazine’s online Shadow Government section and writes on topics including trade policy, economic relations with China, and the European economic crisis. Dr. Levy has testified before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Joint Economic Committee, the House Committee on Ways and Mean, and the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission. He received his PhD in Economics from Stanford University in 1994 and his AB in Economics from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor in 1988.


Why are Trade Deals Complicated?

Why not embrace the one-sentence free trade agreement? Consider three examples of the complications that have arisen over the years.

Just a Flesh Wound?

At the end of July, negotiators for the 12 Trans-Pacific Partnership countries failed to conclude a trade agreement. Was the failure just a flesh wound, or was it something more serious?

It’s all Greek to Me

As the Greek suffering mounts and they careen towards Sunday’s referendum, Senior Fellow Phil Levy has two additional questions surrounding the Greek crisis.

Previously, on Game of Trade…

It is traditional, in intricate ongoing dramatic sagas, to begin a new episode with a recap. If you are just tuning in to trade policy prospects in the US Congress, Senior Fellow Phil Levy breaks it down in his latest post on the World of Cents blog.

Venn Will They See How Serious This Is?

After the President’s trade policy was blocked in the US Senate yesterday, there was a divide among analysts over just how serious a setback the vote was. But it is difficult to see how the trade agenda could now advance, and the sensitive timing of trade talks means that a delay could be fatal.

Cities and Trade

Last week, the battle to gain trade promotion authority (TPA) began in earnest in Washington.

China Joins the Monetary Party

This week China took an unusually strong measure to goose its economy. It lowered the amount of money that Chinese banks needed to hold in reserve. In theory, this should allow the banks to take those sequestered funds and use them for new loans, thereby stimulating the Chinese economy.

International Ramifications of the Jobs Report

The big news of the morning was that the US economy created 295,000 jobs in February, pushing the unemployment rate down to 5.5 percent. Both numbers were better than expected, which seemed to paint a picture of an economy returning to normal after a long, chilly period of slow growth and painful joblessness.

An Economic Question about the President’s Immigration Action

There is a raging debate about whether the President stretched or exceeded his executive powers, but let us set aside the legal and political questions for the moment and consider a (wonkish) economic one: How does the administration envision the demand for low-skilled labor?

Can We Take a Hint?

Trade impasses between the United States and Japan are eminently predictable. They will continue until the Obama administration shows it has achieved domestic agreement on trade. 

New Deficit Numbers in Perspective

In this week of financial market turmoil, there was a notable bit of good news: the US federal budget deficit shrank to 2.8 percent of GDP, its lowest level since 2007. 

Are EU Sanctions Working?

Are EU sanctions on Russia working? If goal is to annoy Russians and make symbolic gesture, then yes. Otherwise, no.

Phantom French Austerity

The New York Times is reporting a brewing political crisis in France. The Prime Minister is planning to dissolve the government in a battle over budgetary belt-tightening.