March 14, 2013 | By Dina Smeltz

It's Not Easy Being Green

President Obama will be in Chicago’s western suburbs to promote his energy policies on Friday at Argonne National Laboratory.  The Administration’s energy strategy has evolved over time, viewing the production of natural gas and nuclear energy as a transitional stage in shifting away from dependence on fossil fuels to reliance on cleaner energy sources.  As new supplies of oil and natural gas have been developed, particularly through fracking, the gains have also had positive knock-on effects for job growth and economic improvement.  Analysts say that within a decade, the US could not only become energy independent, but also a net energy exporter. While this is good news for the goals of energy independence and economic growth, opponents of fracking are trying to raise concern about the environmental risks associated with the process.

As far as American public opinion is concerned, reducing energy dependence is a top priority. While a majority of Americans across the political spectrum favor measures that emphasize the development of alternative energy and energy conservation, they are not willing to personally pay increased taxes to encourage the use of alternative energy.  Moreover, there has a been shift in opinion toward emphasizing energy production over environmental protection. As often happens, question wording plays a role in how people react to energy options.  And this highlights the potential for various messages from different interest groups to affect opinion.

[Polling trends other than Chicago Council surveys can be found at]

Reducing U.S. Dependence on Foreign Oil Tops Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism as Goal

The 2012 Chicago Council Survey finds that nearly eight in ten Americans believe reducing U.S. dependency on foreign oil should be a “very important” foreign policy goal of the US, second only to protecting the jobs of American workers. Energy independence is seen as very important by more Americans than preventing nuclear proliferation, combating international terrorism, and maintaining superior military power worldwide (Figure 1).

Majority Support Tax Breaks for Clean Energy; Oppose Increased Taxes on Gas or Electricity

When asked about various approaches to address U.S. dependence on foreign energy sources, the Chicago Council 2012 survey finds eight in ten Americans favor creating tax incentives for businesses to encourage the development and use of alternative energy sources, such as solar or wind power (78%).   For most Americans, these tax incentives would have little direct impact on them personally, so there are not many downsides to supporting them in a survey question. Two in three also favor increasing fuel efficiency of American cars, even if it resulted in higher car prices (65%). On the other hand, a large majority of Americans (70%) oppose policy options that would require raising taxes on fossil fuels to incentivize individuals and businesses to use less coal and oil (Figure 2).

Other surveys confirm that Americans favor developing alternative energy supplies over production of fossil fuels.  Pew Research/USA Today surveys from 2011-2013 also show a continued preference for “developing alternative sources, such as wind, solar and hydrogen technology” over “expanding exploration and production of oil, coal and natural gas,” though the gap between the two options has narrowed considerably since 2011 (Figure 3).

A Gallup survey from 2012 also find majorities in favor of “setting higher auto emissions standards” (62%) and setting higher emissions and pollution standards for business and industry (70%), as well as spending government money on developing solar and wind power (69%), and the development of alternate sources of automobile fuel (66%).  

Energy Production vs. Environmental Protection

These results in favor of clean energy might lead readers to believe the American public is leaning “green,” but other results show that Americans place less importance now on environmental protection (versus energy production) than they have in the past.

Between 2001 and 2008, more Americans placed a higher priority on environmental protection “even at the risk of limiting the amount of energy supplies, such as oil, gas and coal, which the US produces” over the “development of US energy supplies, such as oil, gas, and coal, even if the environment suffers to some extent.”   But in recent years there has been less consistency (Figure 4).

Between 2009 and 2012, opinion fluctuated between the two options- a consequence of the Gulf oil spill in April 2010.  By 2011, more said that developing energy should be given greater priority, and in 2012 opinion is somewhat divided, with 47 percent placing a greater emphasis on energy development and 44 percent choosing the environment. These changes could be linked to declines in personal economic situations, and perhaps we will see a return to giving the environment precedence if personal financial situations improve.

This is the first post in a series on American attitudes on energy sources:


The Chicago Council on Global Affairs highlights critical shifts in American public thinking on US foreign policy through public opinion surveys and research conducted under the Lester Crown Center on US Foreign Policy. 

The annual Chicago Council Survey, first conducted in 1974, is a valuable resource for policymakers, academics, media, and the general public. The Council also surveys American leaders in government, business, academia, think tanks, and religious organizations biennially to compare trends in their thinking with overall trends. And collaborating with partner organizations, the survey team periodically conducts parallel surveys of public opinion in other regions of the world to compare with US public opinion. 

The Running Numbers blog features regular commentary and analysis from the Council’s public opinion and US foreign policy research team, including a series of flash polls of a select group of foreign policy experts to assess their opinions on critical foreign policy topics driving the news.


| By Dina Smeltz, Craig Kafura

Americans Support Limited Military Action in Syria

The 2016 Chicago Council Survey, conducted June 10-27, reveals that Americans across partisan lines support limited military actions in Syria that combine air strikes and the use of Special Operations Forces. There are deep partisan divides on accepting Syrian refugees, and widespread skepticism toward arming anti-government groups or negotiating a deal that would leave President Assad in power. 

| By Dina Smeltz, Karl Friedhoff, Craig Kafura

Republicans Back Trump, but Not All of his Policies

If the general election were held today, a solid majority of Republicans (including self-described Republicans and Republican-leaning Independents) say they would vote for Mr. Trump in the presidential contest against Secretary Clinton. But Donald Trump was not the top choice for many Republicans among the full field of primary candidates. While eventually deciding to back Trump, those who were hoping for a different nominee are not endorsing some of Trump’s key positions.

| By Karl Friedhoff

Flare-ups in Taiwan-China Relations Here to Stay

The China-Taiwan relationship may be due for flare-ups in the coming years, and China's recent decision to suspend diplomatic contact with Taiwan could set the tone for the short-term direction of cross-strait relations. But polling suggests that the Taiwanese public prefers a pragmatic approach to relations with China, limiting the publicly palatable options facing Taiwan's President Tsai, Karl Friedhoff writes.

Nuclear Energy: Americans Favor Stagnation

How do Americans feel about nuclear energy? From Chernobyl to Homer Simpson, nuclear energy doesn’t have a stunning reputation, but until recently polls showed a majority of Americans favor its use for energy. In fact it appears that support for nuclear energy is linked with energy availability and that Americans would rather develop other energy sources.

The British Debate on Nuclear Disarmament

Last month the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, a UK group founded in 1958, held its largest rally since 1983. Yet disarmament remains unpopular amongst the general public. 

| By Karl Friedhoff

NYPD Union Takes to the Polls

Karl Friedhoff looks at a survey conducted by the New York City Patrolmen's Benevolent Association, which finds high levels of dissatisfaction among its members. But publicly available surveys of officers appear to be rare.

| By Craig Kafura

O Canada! Public Opinion and the US-Canada Relationship

Canada’s newly-elected Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, son of former Canadian PM Pierre Trudeau, recently enjoyed a successful state visit to the United States. While Canadian prime ministers don’t visit the United States as frequently as they used to, that doesn’t mean American enthusiasm for Canada has flagged.

| By Dina Smeltz

Iran Is Holding Elections, Too

Iran is holding parliamentary and Assembly of Experts elections tomorrow. A recent University of Maryland survey of the Iranian public found that six in ten Iranians prefer that most of the parliament to be composed of the supporters of President Hassan Rouhani.