May 31, 2016

Guest Commentary – Crazy Idea to Change the World: What If We Gave Kids a Good Start in Life?


 


This piece originally appeared on Grist

By Nathanael Johnson, Food Writer, Grist


Why do some countries remain poor, despite the best efforts of governments and development experts?

“It’s because their children are getting off to a lousy start,” says Roger Thurow, a journalist and senior fellow at the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. I spoke with Thurow about his new book, The First 1,000 Days, which makes the case that improving early childhood nutrition is the missing key to prosperity. It’s a simple idea with big promise for the poor and for the planet.

In a recent interview, we talked about how a shaky nutritional foundation is not only bad for children, but bad for everyone, and ruinous for the environment. Our interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.

Q. What are the 1,000 days, and why do they matter?
 


A. The 1,000 days are the time from when a woman becomes pregnant to the second birthday of the child. It’s the time where the foundation is laid for strong physical growth, for development of the brain, and for development of the immune system. The key to all that is good nutrition.

So when you ask the broader question: Why do some places remain poor? It’s because their children are getting off to a lousy start. There’s this stunting and underachievement that rolls through time and across economies. Ending stunting has always been the right thing to do morally. But it’s also the smart thing to do because this is really taking a toll on the global economy.

Q. At Grist we often talk about fighting poverty and suffering as an integral part of fighting climate change, but that’s not an obvious connection for everyone. Do you see that connection with your work?
 


A. I do. Increased extreme weather occurrences have tremendous impact on harvests. There’s a very strong connection between climate and the ability of small farmers to feed their families. And if farmers can’t feed their families their only option is often to expand their farmland by cutting down trees and plowing up land. Poverty exacts a real toll on the environment.


Q. When you looked at programs focusing on the first 1,000 days, what evidence did you see that they were working?
 


A. In Guatemala, this mom Maria Estella — she’s very worried about her first child Yesica because she’s smaller and she was behind some of the other kids in walking and talking. So when she got pregnant again she joined a nutrition class at a clinic. She gave birth to a very robust boy Jorge, and by the time he turned 2, he was basically the same size as his sister, who was coming up on 4. And the mom says he seems calmer, more curious, and further ahead developmentally.
So it doesn’t need to be from one generation to the next that these changes take place. You can do it between siblings in one family.

Q. When Americans think of malnourished children, we generally think of other countries, but of course it also happens here. What did this look like in Chicago?
 


A. It’s the same as the other countries I visited: Environmental conditions reinforce poverty, and it means kids are getting a lousy start in life. One of the reasons I settled on Chicago as an example is that I heard Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel speak about food deserts. He said, “I know there’s a nutritional aspect, but when I look at food deserts I also see them as opportunity deserts, job deserts, education deserts, health deserts, infrastructure deserts.”

Just like in other countries, there are all these socio-economic barriers to getting good nutrition, and that prevents good education, which affects the kids’ ability to make money and be successful. In Chicago one year, 20 to 25 percent of children entering kindergarten were overweight or obese. And that’s the manifestation of this malnourishment that’s happening in the 1,000 days.


Q. How are people putting the 1,000-days focus into practice?
 


A. In the past, there’s been very low investment in nutrition. Now there’s a new awareness among economists and finance people that, wow, this really has an impact on the prosperity of families, and countries, and the world, and on stability and security.

On the development side, a couple years ago USAID said that nutrition needs to be a central focus, because no matter what we are doing in health, or education, or infrastructure, that’s all dependent on nutrition. And the World Bank just a couple of weeks ago launched a new program for investing in nutrition. So we’re coming out of the days of ignoring nutrition at the start of life. Hopefully early childhood nutrition stays in the forefront.

 

Archive



| By Roger Thurow

The Ryan Budget and One Particularly Pernicious Paragraph

Since Mitt Romney chose Paul Ryan as his vice presidential running mate, many people have peered into the House budget plan that the Wisconsin Congressman shaped - the so-called Ryan budget — to see what it might portend for a Romney-Ryan administration.

| By Roger Thurow

The Games and Hunger – True Inspiration

The London Summer Olympics have been chock full of wondrous achievements and inspiring moments: Michael Phelps, Usain Bolt, Sarah Attar, Oscar Pistorious, an impressive roster of African athletes rising from deep poverty to the medal platform. Just imagine the journey from Somalia or Sudan to a stadium filled with 80,000 people, flashbulbs sparkling like stars. Amazing.

| By Roger Thurow

Let's Keep the Focus This Time

Are we paying attention now? The shriveled corn and wilting beans and severely parched soil of the U.S. farm belt are trying to tell us something: focus on the global food chain.

| By Roger Thurow

From AIDS to Agriculture

As we have heard during this week's international conference in Washington, D.C., there has been wondrous progress on the AIDS treatment front since President George W. Bush launched the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) nearly a decade ago.


| By Roger Thurow

Just Do It

With the London Olympics approaching, it is time that we dusted off the old Nike solgan - Just Do It - and apply it to the agricultural development front.

| By Roger Thurow

Derailing Momentum

There is no doubt that the financial crisis roiling Europe has unsettled world markets, scrambled politics, shaken re-election prospects in several countries and darkened many 401-k prospects.  But as the drama stretches on and on, another mighty impact is emerging: it is derailing the momentum to fight hunger and poverty through agricultural development.

| By Roger Thurow

A Beautiful Day

It was a beautiful day, as Bono might sing, when President Obama and Secretary of State Clinton and a phalanx of corporate leaders, and the Irish rock star himself, gathered in Washington DC on May 18 to shift the effort to end hunger through agricultural development into a higher gear.

| By Roger Thurow

Neglect Reversed, Now Keep the Focus

Too poor, too remote, too insignificant.  That was the unofficial mantra behind the neglect of smallholder farmers in Africa for the past four decades.  It was recited by the farmers’ own governments, by rich world governments, by development institutions large and small, by the private sector.  It has left Africa’s farmers far behind those in the rest of the world.  It has left them unable to feed their own families throughout the year.  It has given rise to that horrible oxymoron “hungry farmers.”

| By Roger Thurow

Fighting the Injustice of Hunger

President Barack Obama issued an "all hands on deck" command to combat chronic hunger and malnutrition, which he said was "an outrage and an affront to who we are."

| By Roger Thurow

A Transformational Day

The Chicago Council Symposium on Global Agriculture and Food Security opened with a jolt of urgency and possibility.



Multimedia

Videos


 


Digital Preview of The First 1,000 Days

In his new book, The First 1,000 Days, Council senior fellow Roger Thurow illuminates the 1,000 Days initiative to end early childhood malnutrition through the compelling stories of new mothers in Uganda, India, Guatemala, and Chicago. Get a first-look at photos and stories from the book in this new web interactive.

» Learn more.
» Order your copy of the book.

Books

The First 1,000 Days

Roger Thurow’s book will tell the story of the vital importance of proper nutrition and health care in the 1,000 days window from the beginning of a woman’s pregnancy to her child’s second birthday.

The 1,000 days period is the crucial period of development, when malnutrition can have severe life-long impacts on the individual, the family and society as a whole. Nutritional deficiencies that occur during this time are often overlooked, resulting in a hidden hunger. It is a problem of great human and economic dimensions, impacting rich and poor countries alike.

Learn more »

The Last Hunger Season

In The Last Hunger Season, the intimate dramas of the farmers' lives unfold amidst growing awareness that to feed the world's growing population, food production must double by 2050. How will the farmers, Africa, and a hungrier world deal with issues of water usage, land ownership, foreign investment, corruption, GMO's, the changing role of women, and the politics of foreign aid?

Learn more »

EnoughEnough

Roger Thurow and Scott Kilman, award-winning writers on Africa, development, and agriculture, see famine as the result of bad policies spanning the political spectrum. In this compelling investigative narrative, they explain through vivid human stories how the agricultural revolutions that transformed Asia and Latin America stopped short in Africa, and how our sometimes well-intentioned strategies—alternating with ignorance and neglect—have conspired to keep the world’s poorest people hungry and unable to feed themselves.

Learn more »