October 7, 2011 | By Roger Thurow

Girls Grow

Bungoma, Kenya

The teenagers of rural western Kenya I have met during the past year have no shortage of ambition.  Especially the girls.  They want to be doctors and nurses and teachers and lawyers and pilots.

One girl, an eighth-grader name Jackline, rises long before the sun every morning to begin making breakfast tea for her family.  By 4:30, she is walking the mile to her primary school for a special study session to prepare for the national standard exams that will determine where she will go to high school next year, if her marks are good enough.  Then after a full day of classes, and a break for a meager dinner, she returns to school after dark for another hour or two of study.

She hopes to become a nurse, and maybe work for the village pharmacy where the nurse in charge is desperate for an assistant.

Realizing these ambitions is essential for the economic development of rural areas in the developing world, particularly Africa.  A new Chicago Council report, Girls Grow: A Vital Force in Rural Economies, highlights the untapped potential of adolescent girls living in rural areas.

The report, being released today (a day on which three women, two of them Africans, were award the Nobel Peace Prize), concludes:Adolescent girls must be a key part of successful agricultural and rural economic development strategies, as they are many of the world’s future farmers, rural leaders and decision makers.  The report focuses on how girls can uniquely contribute to agriculture.

“If the world is to meet the challenge of feeding nine billion people by 2050, we must invest in the human capital of those with the potential to transform agricultural economies – adolescent girls,” said Catherine Bertini, the former director of the World Food Program and the lead author and chair of the project that produced the report. “Already, they carry much of families’ burdens; with opportunity, they can be major change agents for rural communities and nations.  As nations are rediscovering the importance of agricultural development, we want to ensure that the new definition of rural economies’ strengths includes the critical role of adolescent girls.”

The report also rightly emphasizes that rural adolescent girls face a triple challenge due to their location, gender, and age.

Many of them are daughters of smallholder farmers, who are the poorest and hungriest people in the world.  The role of these rural girls is to do much of the domestic work, like gathering firewood, fetching water and sweeping the homestead, along with their mothers, and also to help out in the field during planting and harvest times.  Many of them are discouraged from thinking big.  They are often expected to get married and work a farm, like their mothers.  As a result, women do most of the farming on smallholder plots in Africa. Girls often take a backseat to the boys in education; if a family has limited resources to afford school fees, it’s the girls who are usually the first to be kept home.

This is why agriculture development is so important, as it is a prime agent for empowering women.  The more productive their farming is, the more significant their role in feeding the family and generating income is.  Indiscriminate cuts in foreign aid that end up slashing agriculture development spending have a disproportionate impact on women in the developing world.

The Chicago Council report recommends that adolescent girls be incorporated into country-wide agricultural development plans, have more opportunities to receive agricultural skill building and participate in rural peer groups, and have greater access to agricultural inputs and credit.   Donors are also encouraged to dedicate climate change adaptation and mitigation monies targeting natural resource management to programs including girls.

I’m finding that their mothers are also pushing for their daughters to live better lives.  Just as there is no lack of ambition among rural girls, there is no lack of determination among their mothers.

In a group discussion I had with women farmers in western Kenya, it was clear that girls’ access to land was a top priority.  In rural areas like this, the custom is that land passes from fathers to sons.  Girls rarely are allowed to stay on the land on which they were born.

A number of the women farmers pointed to Kenya’s new constitution, saying it ensures that all children, no matter their gender, can inherit land.  And these women want to make sure that holds.  Most of them had to stop their education before finishing high school because their parents couldn’t afford the fees.  If they make enough money from increasing the size and nutritious value of their harvests, they say they will seek to buy land with the intent to pass it on to their daughters.  If such action becomes common, it will lead to a social transformation in the rural areas.

“Land is important for girls because not all of them will be able to complete school like the boys,” said one of the farmers.

“Or get jobs,” added another.

“Land is life,” insisted a third.

These women farmers know that their climb from hunger and poverty will be long and arduous, but they also know that one measure of success will be their daughters being able to capitalize on opportunities that they never had.

Archive



| By Roger Thurow

A Glimpse of Feeding the Future

As leaders of the world’s top industrial countries gather for the Group of Eight summit in Canada, they can look to the long-suffering hills of Rwanda to see the fruits – and vegetables — of their actions.


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It's the Security

For anyone who doesn’t “get” the moral and economic imperative of ending hunger through agriculture development, here’s another motivating imperative: security, both domestic and global.

| By Roger Thurow

Feet to the Fire

Just back from Sudan, Rajiv Shah, USAID administrator, came to the Chicago Council’s Symposium on Global Agriculture and Food Security this morning with fresh evidence that food security is the key to national prosperity, regional stability and international peace.  

| By Roger Thurow

She's the Boss

As Rajiv Shah spoke at last week’s Symposium on Global Agriculture and Food Security, I thought about an image in his old office at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation before he became Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development.  Hanging on the wall behind his desk was a photo of a child crouching in a blue wash bucket somewhere in Africa.  Only her head was visible above the bucket’s rim.
Tell me about the girl, I asked.

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Starting Early

The clamor begins just inside the door of Ridge Academy elementary school on Chicago’s south side.  Short essays and drawings shout out to all those who pass:

“Many people are dying now because of hunger.”


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Fighting Hunger: Law of the Land

From across the pond, amid the sniping and bickering of the current election season in the United Kingdom, comes a worthy idea: enshrining in law the nation’s commitment to provide a certain level of foreign development aid.


| By Roger Thurow

All Together Now

It’s all the same really, the clamor over hunger, climate change and environmental preservation.  The common goal: improve food production and nutritional quality to feed the planet’s ever-expanding and more prosperous population while adapting to climate change and protecting delicate eco-systems.

| By Roger Thurow

Defusing Threats

It was in the scary days of the Cold War when Norman Borlaug, a plant breeder from small-town Iowa, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970.  An odd choice, perhaps, given the nuclear standoff at the time, but the Norwegian committee bestowing the award had a good reason.

| By Roger Thurow

The Hungry Can't Eat Words

A blunt reminder of the task at hand came from Europe this week, aimed at the powers-that-be in the Group of Eight leading industrial countries, also known as the G8:

“Declarations, commitments and speeches don’t feed hungry people.”


Multimedia

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Digital Preview of The First 1,000 Days

In his new book, The First 1,000 Days, Council senior fellow Roger Thurow illuminates the 1,000 Days initiative to end early childhood malnutrition through the compelling stories of new mothers in Uganda, India, Guatemala, and Chicago. Get a first-look at photos and stories from the book in this new web interactive.

» Learn more.
» Order your copy of the book.

Books

The First 1,000 Days

Roger Thurow’s book will tell the story of the vital importance of proper nutrition and health care in the 1,000 days window from the beginning of a woman’s pregnancy to her child’s second birthday.

The 1,000 days period is the crucial period of development, when malnutrition can have severe life-long impacts on the individual, the family and society as a whole. Nutritional deficiencies that occur during this time are often overlooked, resulting in a hidden hunger. It is a problem of great human and economic dimensions, impacting rich and poor countries alike.

Learn more »

The Last Hunger Season

In The Last Hunger Season, the intimate dramas of the farmers' lives unfold amidst growing awareness that to feed the world's growing population, food production must double by 2050. How will the farmers, Africa, and a hungrier world deal with issues of water usage, land ownership, foreign investment, corruption, GMO's, the changing role of women, and the politics of foreign aid?

Learn more »

EnoughEnough

Roger Thurow and Scott Kilman, award-winning writers on Africa, development, and agriculture, see famine as the result of bad policies spanning the political spectrum. In this compelling investigative narrative, they explain through vivid human stories how the agricultural revolutions that transformed Asia and Latin America stopped short in Africa, and how our sometimes well-intentioned strategies—alternating with ignorance and neglect—have conspired to keep the world’s poorest people hungry and unable to feed themselves.

Learn more »