June 20, 2018 | By Roger Thurow

1,000 Days and Migrant Stress

The impact of the Trump administration’s practice of separating families crossing the southern border may be carried far into the future by the children who were abruptly taken from their parents.

Pediatricians, psychologists, and child development researchers have been accumulating evidence that stress and trauma can be major contributors to stunted child development, along with poor nutrition and sanitation. The harm can be particularly acute for mothers and children in the first 1,000 days period during pregnancy to the second birthday of the child; it is the time when the foundation for physical growth is established and when the brain is developing most rapidly and expansively. Interruptions in nutrition, disease from bad water and sanitation, and toxic stress can set back cognitive and physical development for a lifetime.

I saw the impact of migration stress while reporting The First 1,000 Days, which chronicles the lives of moms and their children and families through their first 1,000 days in India, Uganda, Guatemala, and Chicago.

In the western highlands of Guatemala, where child malnutrition rates soared past 50%, the moms were members of a nutrition rehabilitation program led by Primeros Pasos, a clinic founded and run by US and Guatemalan medical students. The moms eagerly gathered to learn about the importance of vitamins and minerals, which foods growing in their fields and sold at their markets were most abundant in those nutrients, and how best to cook them and incorporate them into their diets. They also learned how poor sanitation and hygiene could undermine all these nutrition efforts.

Dianet, one of the moms, seemed to be particularly attentive: she took notes, asked questions, and ambitiously followed the cooking recipes. She kept a clean home. Still, her daughter wasn’t thriving. At her first birthday, the daughter was falling behind in physical growth.

The Primeros Pasos nutritionists were puzzled. Dianet said money was tight in the family, and their corn crop was smaller than expected. Still, the nutritionists thought, there must be something more.

Dianet confided that she was worried about her husband’s attempts to migrate to the United States, where he believed he could find a job and better provide for his family. Three times he had tried, traveling overland through Guatemala and then all the way up through Mexico to the US border. Three times he made it across, only to be rounded up by US authorities and sent back.

Now, Dianet’s husband was pressing her to come with him on another attempt, and to bring their daughter as well. Dianet was consumed with fear. Each attempt to get to the United States had cost them a minor fortune – a couple of thousand dollars at least for the guides. Lenders offered money at high rates, and their debt was growing. The trip was arduous and extremely dangerous. It required walking, riding on the tops of trains, being crammed into the backs of trucks, and crossing rivers and harsh terrain. They would follow the same trails used by drug smugglers, and bandits lay in wait to prey on the migrants. And in the US, there could be detention and arrest. Each time her husband left, Dianet worried that she would never see him again.

This was no journey for a child, she told her husband, particularly one as young as their daughter, who was just learning to walk. Dianet doubted that she herself could make it; she felt she still hadn’t regained all her strength after giving birth.

She didn’t know what to do if her husband insisted on making another run. She frantically asked him: What if they arrest you, what would we do? What if we are both detained in the U.S. and the authorities take our daughter? The uncertainty, the risk, the cost, and the possibility of disaster which could include a family separation – it was all an incredible burden that Dianet was carrying.

As the nutritionists listened, they feared that the daughter was getting lost in mom’s worry. For them it was clear: stress in the home could be as debilitating for a child’s development as a lack of nutrition or lousy water, sanitation and hygiene.

At the end of their 1,000 days, Dianet and her daughter were still in Guatemala. The worry had taken a toll on both. But for thousands of other moms and dads in central America who were on the move north with their children, the stress would only multiply.

Archive



| By Roger Thurow

African Farmers: Surviving or Thriving?

It is one of Africa’s cruelest ironies that as the planting season begins, as it is now across much of the continent, so does the hunger season. The food stocks from the previous harvest are running low and it will be several months before the next harvest comes in. Whatever food remains in the household is rationed: portions shrink, meals are skipped, malnutrition rises.


| By Roger Thurow

Relief to Resilience

There is little mail service in rural Africa, so the smallholder farmers there wouldn’t have received last week’s annual letter of U.S. Agency for International Development Administrator Rajiv Shah.  But they certainly would welcome his words.

| By Roger Thurow

Developments at the Development Bank

I’m surprised that “surprise” is a word being used to describe President Obama’s nomination of Jim Yong Kim to head the World Bank.  Surprise, perhaps, over the specific name, because Dr. Kim hadn’t figured prominently in the speculation of who would replace current World Bank president Robert Zoellick.

| By Roger Thurow

The Rising Power of Women Farmers

The most common tool in African agriculture is also the most impractical.  Or at least it appears to be.  It is the hoe, which is used for plowing, planting, weeding and harvesting.  It is a simple tool that produces the majority of the continent’s food, and yet it has remained unchanged over the centuries, defying any technological advance.

| By Roger Thurow

Looking Back, Moving Forward

At President Obama’s first international summit, the G8 meeting in L’Aquila, Italy in July 2009, he rallied his fellow rich world leaders to commit to investing $22 billion to conquer global hunger through agricultural development.  He spoke passionately about both the moral obligation and the global security imperative of ending hunger and the despair and hopelessness such deep poverty breeds.

| By Roger Thurow

Mr. Xi Goes to Iowa

Those were interesting photos from the dusty archives that appeared in various newspapers and TV reports this week, pictures of a visitor from China inspecting hogs, vegetable farms and grain processing facilities in Iowa back in 1985.  It became downright fascinating when it turned out that visitor, Xi Jinping, was now returning to the U.S., and to Iowa, as the vice president of China.  Oh, and he is presumed to be China’s next president.

| By Roger Thurow

Global Collaboration

At the foot of Mount Kenya, a patch of maize stalks are defying the odds.  They are standing tall and robust in a trial field where the soil had been intentionally depleted of nitrogen, one of the essential nutrients for maize.

| By Roger Thurow

Learning by Doing

Learning by doing is the philosophy of the Pan-American agricultural school known as Zamorano in Honduras.  Students come to class every day dressed in their uniform of blue jeans and blue shirt.  They come to work, not just to study; more often than not, their classrooms are the fields and the food production plants on campus.  They plant seeds and pull weeds and milk cows and nurture fish and make ice cream and inseminate queen bees.

| By Roger Thurow

Sidetracked

A not so funny thing happened on the way to the G20 meeting in Cannes last week.

| By Roger Thurow

The Right Vote

We’ll keep this short:

“Vote for the Appropriations Committee recommendation for foreign operations and against any cuts that would hurt hungry and poor people.”

| By Roger Thurow

Girls Grow

The teenagers of rural western Kenya I have met during the past year have no shortage of ambition.  Especially the girls.  They want to be doctors and nurses and teachers and lawyers and pilots.


Multimedia

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Digital Preview of The First 1,000 Days

In his new book, The First 1,000 Days, Council senior fellow Roger Thurow illuminates the 1,000 Days initiative to end early childhood malnutrition through the compelling stories of new mothers in Uganda, India, Guatemala, and Chicago. Get a first-look at photos and stories from the book in this new web interactive.

» Learn more.
» Order your copy of the book.

Books

The First 1,000 Days

Roger Thurow’s book will tell the story of the vital importance of proper nutrition and health care in the 1,000 days window from the beginning of a woman’s pregnancy to her child’s second birthday.

The 1,000 days period is the crucial period of development, when malnutrition can have severe life-long impacts on the individual, the family and society as a whole. Nutritional deficiencies that occur during this time are often overlooked, resulting in a hidden hunger. It is a problem of great human and economic dimensions, impacting rich and poor countries alike.

Learn more »

The Last Hunger Season

In The Last Hunger Season, the intimate dramas of the farmers' lives unfold amidst growing awareness that to feed the world's growing population, food production must double by 2050. How will the farmers, Africa, and a hungrier world deal with issues of water usage, land ownership, foreign investment, corruption, GMO's, the changing role of women, and the politics of foreign aid?

Learn more »

EnoughEnough

Roger Thurow and Scott Kilman, award-winning writers on Africa, development, and agriculture, see famine as the result of bad policies spanning the political spectrum. In this compelling investigative narrative, they explain through vivid human stories how the agricultural revolutions that transformed Asia and Latin America stopped short in Africa, and how our sometimes well-intentioned strategies—alternating with ignorance and neglect—have conspired to keep the world’s poorest people hungry and unable to feed themselves.

Learn more »